Elsevier

Journal of Affective Disorders

Volume 360, 1 September 2024, Pages 79-87
Journal of Affective Disorders

Research paper
Predicting which intervention works better for whom: Moderators of treatment effect of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and Positive Psychology Intervention in patients with bipolar disorder

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2024.05.110Get rights and content
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open access

Highlights

  • This is a first step to improve personalized assignment of third-wave CBT interventions for patients with bipolar disorder.

  • Findings show that both MBCT and PPI are more helpful than TAU in improving well-being at 12-months after baseline.

  • Patients with more severe symptomatology benefit more from MBCT than PPI at posttreatment and 12 months after baseline.

Abstract

Background

This study aimed to identify moderators of treatment effect (i.e. depressive symptoms and well-being) of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) and Positive Psychology Intervention (PPI) in patients with bipolar disorder.

Methods

Data were drawn from two multicenter randomized controlled trials investigating effectiveness of MBCT vs treatment as usual (TAU; n = 144) and PPI vs TAU (n = 97) in bipolar disorder. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, posttreatment, and 12 months after baseline. Data were analyzed using separate linear regression models, comparing the pooled MBCT or PPI outcomes to TAU, and comparing MBCT to PPI.

Results

The exploratory analyses not corrected for multiple comparisons showed a number of variables that were associated with stronger response to the interventions, including higher baseline anxiety, lower well-being, and lower levels of self-focused positive rumination, well-being, and self-compassion, and variables associated with a stronger response to either MBCT (higher levels of depression and anxiety and being married) or PPI (being male). After correcting for multiple testing, depressive symptoms appeared to be the most robust variable associated with better response to MBCT than PPI.

Limitations

The RCTs handled slightly different enrollment criteria and outcome measures.

Conclusions

The most robust finding is that patients with more severe symptomatology seem to benefit more from MBCT than PPI.

Clinical implications

This is a first step to improve personalized assignment of third-wave CBT interventions for patients with bipolar disorder. However, before definite treatment assignment criteria can be formulated and implemented in clinical practice, these findings should be replicated.

Keywords

Bipolar disorder
Mindfulness based cognitive therapy
Positive psychology
Moderators
Effect

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